A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.
The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior.
The term "system" comes from the Latin word systēma, in turn from Greekσύστημαsystēma: "whole compounded of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".
"System" means "something to look at". You must have a very high visual gradient to have systematization. In philosophy, before Descartes, there was no "system". Plato had no "system". Aristotle had no "system".
In the 19th century the French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, who studied thermodynamics, pioneered the development of the concept of a "system" in the natural sciences. In 1824 he studied the system which he called the working substance (typically a body of water vapor) in steam engines, in regards to the system's ability to do work when heat is applied to it. The working substance could be put in contact with either a boiler, a cold reservoir (a stream of cold water), or a piston (to which the working body could do work by pushing on it). In 1850, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius generalized this picture to include the concept of the surroundings and began to use the term "working body" when referring to the system.
Lidar originated in the early 1960s, shortly after the invention of the laser, and combined laser-focused imaging with radar's ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for a signal to return. Its first applications came in meteorology, where the National Center for Atmospheric Research used it to measure clouds. The general public became aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission, when astronauts used a laser altimeter to map the surface of the moon.
A safety driver operating an Uber self-driving vehicle looked down at a phone that was streaming The Voice on Hulu 204 times during a 43-minute test drive that ended when pedestrian ElaineHerzberg was struck and killed in Tempe, Arizona, according to a 318-page police report reviewed by TechCrunch ... A found Uber’s modified Volvo XC90’s LiDAR and radar first spotted an object in its path about six seconds before the crash ... ....
Bossa Nova Robotics today announced the closure of a $29 million funding round to bolster its store inventory robots for grocery stores and large retailers like Walmart... Though they move at low speeds and inventory robots are programmed to operate at times of day when shoppers are less likely to be present, LIDAR and a series of sensors are used to recognize objects and ensure the robots avoid running into or injuring people ... ....
Further innovations include colors with state-of-the-art functionality, increasing reflectivity for enhanced LiDAR detectability, without compromising their aesthetic appeal. North America – Expanding color horizons ... Kleur ... "Some of the colors include our innovative, industry-leading pigmentation to increase reflectivity for LiDAR equipment, which is one of the ways self-driving cars can detect objects in their surroundings."....